Acivir 400mg (Acyclovir )
Acivir 400mg belongs to the group of medicines known as antivirals, which are required to treat infections caused by viruses.
Typically,these medicines work for only one type of virus infections. Acivir 400mg is also knowns as Acycloguanosine, Acivir 400mg is a prescription drugs administrated orally which is used under the supervision of medical practioners. Acivir 400mg is used with combination of other medications.
Acivir 400mg is a type of nucleoside analogs (group of synthetic drugs), will inhibit the symptoms of infection contains Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), this infection will cause herpes simplex or type of herpes virus VZV(varicella-Zoster virus) and thereby causes shingles and chickenpox.
Acivir 400mg is indicated to lowers the pain and rapid healing of sores or blisters which is caused by varicella (chickenpox), Herpes Zoster. Acivir 400mg is also indicated for the treatment of herpes virus infection which causes sore to form around the genitals and rectum from time to time(genital herpes) and hence blocks the outbreaks of genital herpes in people affected by virus.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Acivir isexcited by phosphorylation before to that drug will preventssynthesis ofviral DNA. Acivir changes by addition of phosphate group to a viral enzyme known as thymidine kinase has more affinity. HSV-TK or VZV-TK by phosphorylation converts into acyclovir triphosphate then combined into viral DNA, thereby stops further DNA synthesis.Since Acivir attack to a selective type of viral kinase, the drugs enter and works on those cells infected with HSV or VZV, hence it will demobilize the formation of herpesvirus DNA. At high concentration has low activity in uninfected cells, Here by HSV-TK or VZV-TK mutation will lead resistance to acyclovir.
bad water soluble, high plasma concentration after 1-2 hours and bioavailability 15-30%.
human serum protein binding is about 9 to 33%.
Metabolism & Elimination
half-life based concede to age group neonates have t1/2 is 4 hours, children’s have 2-3 hours and for adults t1/2 is 3 hours.
Herpes simplex- mucocutaneous/ immunocompetent host
The recommended adult dose is 200mg orally every 4 hours or 5 times a day for 10 days. Prescribed 400mg orally 3 times a day is givenfor 5 to 10 days.
For pediatric dose
less than 12 years patients prescribed 40 to 80mg/kg/day orally, it can be divided into 3 to 4 times a day, max 5 to 10 days Max dose is given up to 1000mg/day 12yrs or older of patients prescribed 200mg orally 5 times a day every 4 hour. 400mg orally 3 times a day Duration: 7 – 10 days
Herpes simplex - mucocutaneous/ immunocompromised host
The recommended adult dose is 400mg orally 3 times a day Duration: up to 5 to 10 days The patient having Severe disease prescribed dose is 5mg/kg IV every 8 hours
For Episodic treatment: prescribed dose is 400mg orally 3 times a day upto 5 to 14 days For pediatric dose: <12 years: 10 mg/kg IV for every 8 hours upto 7 days 12 years or older: 5 mg/kg IV for every 8 hours upto7 days continues HIV infection The patients with Mild Symptomatic Gingivostomatitis:20 mg/kg orally 4 times a day for 7 to 10 days ; Maximum dose: 400 mg Moderate to Severe Gingivostomatitis:5 to 10 mg/kg IV 3 times a day
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
The usual adult dose is10mg/kg IV for every 8 hours Duration administrated for 10days and center for disease control and prevention recommends 21 days
For pediatric dose: 3 months to 12 years old : IV 10 to 20 mg/kg for every 8 hours 12 years or older: 10mg/kg IV every 8 hours Duration: 10days and center for disease control and prevention recommends 21 days
The usual adult dose is 800mg orally every 4 hours ( 5 times a day) for 7 to 10 days Patients with Immunocompromised host dose is 10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 days Treatment Duration 7 to 14-day course (oral plus IV)
For pediatric the prescribed dose is Immunocompetent Host: -Parenteral: < 1 year: 10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days 1 year or older: 500 mg/m2 IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days Oral: 12 years or older: 800 mg orally 5 times a day for 5 to 7 days Immunocompromised Host: 10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days
Acivir 400mg contains ingestion of 100 capsules ( 20g) have been resulted has agitation, coma, seizures and lethargy. If overdose occurs provide supportive measures.
Common side effects
Serious side effects
- Unusual changes in mood like aggressive behavior, confusion, speaking trouble, hallucinations, seizures, Coma.
• Decreased RBC and Platelets like fatigue
• Liver discomforts
• Skin reaction like hair loss, rash, breaking or loosening of skin, hives
• Changes in your vision
• Kidney failure like flank pain, bloody urine
Acivir concomitant use with probenecid will reduce tubular secretion of acyclovir and increase the blood plasma and half- life of acyclovir. Interaction of Acivir with nephrotoxic drugs may cause increase the risk in renal function Interaction with immunostimulators will enhancing effects of acyclovir
Acivir is contraindicated in patients who causes hypersensitivity to acyclovir or valacyclovir.
Acivir 400mg cause allergic reaction like breathing trouble, swelling of throat or tongue, rash, hives. Inform your doctor if symptoms occur. Discuss with your consultant about planning to become pregnant or pregnancy because drug can be used if possible benefits clarify possible risk to the patients. Discuss with doctor If you had kidney disease because the excretion of drug will not perform well, Acivir 400mg will decrease the kidney function.
Category B: In animal studies it has not shown harm to the fetus and In human no enough studies carried out in pregnant women to describe the harm to the fetus. Drug used only if possible benefits clarify possible risk to the patients.
Mother should decide whether to stop medication or breastfeeding because Acivir 400mg may pass into breast milk and cause adverse reaction to the infants who is feeding.
Store at 15°C to 25°C Keep away from light and children’s resistance area Avoid storing of medicine in moist or damp areas
If dose missed by patients then take the dose immediately. If next dose time reaches leave the missed dose and continue the regular schedule. avoid taking double dose at a time. Please consult the doctor for further details.